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THE DARK AGES                         113

instruction to the knowledge required for the understanding of
the Church services. Against that view is the fact that all later
schools of the kind were grammar schools; and that, moreover, it
was a grammar school which was required. This was a school,
not for the future clergy—though they would attend it—but for
the better-class English children. The English people, it must be
remembered, were in a different position from that of their Con-
tinental neighbours, in that they were totally ignorant of the Latin
tongue in which all the Church services were conducted. " The
missionaries had to come with the Latin service-book in one hand
and the Latin grammar in the other. Not only had the native
priests to be taught the tongue in which their services were per-
formed, but their converts, at least of the upper classes, had to
be taught the elements of grammar before they could grasp the
elements of religion. So the grammar school became in theory,
as it often was in fact, the necessary ante-room, the vestibule
of the church. But as there were no schools any more than
there were churches in England, Augustine had to create both."*
And in doing so he presumably took as his model the ordinary
grammar schools which still existed, though in decadence, in
Italy.

Another passage in Bede^ relating to a song school in York two
years after the founding of the Dunwich school shows that, as
might be expected, there was also a song school at Canterbury.
" When peace was restored and the number of the faithful in-
creased, James the Deacon taught many people Church chanting,
in which he was highly skilled, after the fashion of Rome or
Canterbury." From this it is evident that the conjunction of
song school and grammar school in the great churches, which is
a constant feature of medieval education, had been made in
Canterbury, perhaps for the first time, at the beginning of the
Seventh Century.

The same forces which were at work in the creation of the
English schools were probably active elsewhere about the same
time. That much is implied in the reference to the schools which
Sigebert admired in Gaul. But in most cases the scanty informa-
tion available about the course of events during this period
makes it impossible to trace with any exactness the way in which

* A. F. Leach, The Schools of Medieval England, p. 3.
t History, ii, 20.